ISA Certified Automation Professional (CAP) program

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Certified Automation Professionals (CAPs) are responsible for the direction, design, and deployment of systems and equipment for manufacturing and control systems.

CAP question

Cavitation occurs in liquid flow when:
A. gas and vapor flow become sonic, and the flow rate drops
B. mixtures of fluid and vapor cause erosion of the valve and pipe surfaces
C. fluid pressure drops below the liquid’s vapor pressure, and the vapor pressure is below the outlet pressure
D. fluid pressure drops below the liquid’s vapor pressure, and the vapor pressure is above the outlet pressure

CAP Answer

The answer is C. Fluid pressure drops below the liquid’s vapor pressure, and the vapor pressure is below the outlet pressure. In cavitation, when the liquid drops below the vapor pressure around the vena cava, the liquid vaporizes. As the material moves downstream, the pressure recovers to above the vapor pressure again, and the vapor collapses back into a liquid. This can cause mechanical damage to the valve, trim, and piping.

Answers A and B are not correct, because cavitation requires a state change, which is not indicated in sonic flow or two-phase flow. Answer D is not correct, as this describes the condition known as flashing, where the liquid vaporizes as it passes through the valve orifice, and the pressure does not recover to the point of having the vapor collapse back to a liquid state.

Reference: Trevathan, Vernon L., A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge, Second Edition, ISA, 2006.