Technical Challenges in Producing a Low NOx Monitor
Dr. R. Murty Neti and Matthew Swanson, California Analytical Instruments Inc.
The historical development is reviewed for the NO detection with the chemiluminescence technique. The primary chemiluminescence reaction between NO and ozone is extended to the detection of NO2 by converting NO2 into NO prior to reaction with Ozone. This is accomplished with “converters” of different materials. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed in the use of different materials used in the NO2 to NO conversion. The early source instrumentation had a range of 10 to 10,000ppm whereas the current instrumentation has single digit requirements. This technique is further extended also to the detection of ammonia and mixtures of NOx and ammonia. Some of the sources of errors are reviewed.
Where are the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) Requirements in the Low-NOx Program?
William T. “Jerry” Winberry, Jr., EnviroTech Solutions
The monitoring of low levels of NOx (i.e., below 10 ppm) requires systems that have been specially designed and tested to meet these monitoring demands. While the “draft” performance specification test (PST) for low-NOx monitors has been designed to provide initial certification, there appears to be lack of specifications in the low-NOx program to document that the low-NOx monitors are operating, after initial certification, in a “continuing compliance” mode. This presentation will examine the draft PST along with discussions associate with proposed quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) monitor checks for demonstrating operation in a “continuous compliance” mode.
Chemiluminescence NOx Monitors for Low Level NOx Emissions
Timothy Morphy, Air Quality Instruments
The presentation will be focused on the chemiluminescence technique for measuring NOx emissions, and challenges associated with the measurement. I will also discuss some of the changes we have made to our standard NOx-NO2-NO analyzer to address the needs of the natural gas turbine monitoring applications.
Aging CEMS - Practical Approaches and Considerations for Contending with Aging CEMS Equipment
Ty Smith, CEMTEK Environmental
Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) installed with regulatory requirements in the 1990’s are reaching their ten year anniversary and in some cases are reaching their expected services life. The cost for maintaining these aging CEMS goes beyond the equipment cost and added labor, and can affect the long term cost lost analyzer availability.
Low NOx Burners in the Process Industries
Charles E. Baukal, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.
This presentation will start with a brief introduction to the theory of NOx formation. It will include discussions of how variables such as gas (flame) temperature, air-to-fuel mixture ratio, air preheat temperature, and flue gas recirculation ratio impact NOx emissions. It will then trace the historical development of low NOx burners in the process industries. The earliest low NOx burners incorporated staged air. Successive generations have included staged fuel, internal flue gas recirculation, ultra-lean premix, and advanced mixing. The reduction in NOx will be shown as a function of time for different burner styles. Current problems with ultra low NOx burners, including burner-to-burner interaction, replacing small high NOx burners with larger low NOx burners, and cold furnace startup emissions, will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with current low NOx burner trends such as further reducing NOx levels, more compact burners, and higher firing capacities.
Analysis of CEM Gases using Encoded Photometric Infrared Spectroscopy (EP-IR): Analytical Performance in Wet and Dry Streams
Jim Yano, Aspectrics, Inc.
This presentation will cover new technologies in simultaneous measurement of NOx and other combustion gases in both wet and dry emission streams using EP-IR spectrometry; purpose-built process spectrometers. EP-IR Limits of Detection (LODs) and cross-sensitivity for this application will be discussed. The presentation will address new techniques on calibration maintenance and augmentation. Data transmission, data security, data loss prevention, data warehousing and real-time intelligence on data will also be covered.
Conference Chair and Moderator
ISA is proud to welcome William “Jerry” Winberry as Conference Chair and Moderator. Jerry is Principal Environmental Scientist for EnviroTech Solutions, has more than 30 years experience in air pollution monitoring and control evaluation.